Open Educational Resources

Linear Maps Between Vector Spaces: Additional Definitions and Properties of Linear Maps

Learning Outcomes

  • Compute the transpose of a matrix. Compute the transpose of the product of two matrices
  • Describe the relationship between invertibility, the existence of an inverse, and the determinant of a matrix. Compute the inverse of a 2×2 and a 3×3 matrix
  • Describe of invariants as quantities that are the same under an orthonormal change of basis. Compute the first invariant, the second invariant, and the third invariant of a 3×3 matrix

Matrix Transpose

Let M:\mathbb{R}^n\rightarrow\mathbb{R}^m be a linear map. If M is the matrix representation after choosing particular orthonormal basis sets for the underlying spaces, then, the transpose of M or M^T, is a map M^T:\mathbb{R}^m\rightarrow\mathbb{R}^n whose columns are the rows of M. In component form, this means:

    \[ (M^T)_{ij}=M_{ji} \]

The above definition relies on components. Another equivalent but more convenient definition is as follows.
Let M:\mathbb{R}^n\rightarrow\mathbb{R}^m be a linear map. Then, M^T:\mathbb{R}^m\rightarrow\mathbb{R}^n is the unique linear map that satisfies:

    \[ \forall u\in\mathbb{R}^n,\forall v\in\mathbb{R}^m: Mu\cdot v=u\cdot M^Tv \]

Any of the above two definitions can be used to show the following facts about the transpose of square matrices. \forall N,M:\mathbb{R}^n\rightarrow\mathbb{R}^n

    \[ (NM)^T=M^TN^T \hspace{10mm} (N+M)^T=N^T+M^T \hspace{10mm} (NM^T)_{ij}=\sum_{k=1}^n N_{ik}M_{jk} \]

Notice that since the determinant of a square matrix M:\mathbb{R}^n\rightarrow\mathbb{R}^n is the same whether we consider the rows or the columns, then:

    \[ \det(M)=\det(M^T) \]

For example

    \[ A= \left( \begin{array}{ccc} 1&9&3\\ 2&9&5 \end{array} \right) \hspace{10mm} \Rightarrow \hspace{10mm} A^T= \left( \begin{array}{cc} 1&2\\ 9&9\\ 3&5 \end{array} \right) \]

    \[ B= \left( \begin{array}{ccc} 1&9&2\\ 4&1&3\\ 5&2&7 \end{array} \right) \Rightarrow \det(B)=-110 \hspace{10mm} B^T= \left( \begin{array}{ccc} 1&4&5\\ 9&1&2\\ 2&3&7 \end{array} \right) \Rightarrow \det(B^T)=-110 \]

Matrix Inverse

Let M:\mathbb{R}^n\rightarrow\mathbb{R}^n be a linear map. The following are all equivalent:

  • M is invertible
  • The rows of the matrix representation of M are linearly independent
  • The kernel of the M contains only the zero vector
  • \det(M)\neq 0
In this case, the inverse of M is denoted M^{-1} and satisfies:

    \[ MM^{-1}=M^{-1}M=I \]

Notice that M^{-1} is unique, because if there is another matrix B such that MB=I, then M^{-1}MB=M^{-1}\Rightarrow B=M^{-1}.
Notice also that if \exists A,B such that MA=I and BM=I, then, A=A\Rightarrow (BM)A=A \Rightarrow B(MA)=A\Rightarrow B=A.

If the linear maps A and B are invertible, then it is easy to show that AB is also invertible and:

    \[ (AB)^{-1}=B^{-1}A^{-1} \]

Matrix Inverse in \mathbb{R}^2


Consider the matrix:

    \[ M=\left( \begin{array}{cc} a_1&a_2\\ b_1&b_2 \end{array} \right) \]

Then, the inverse of M can be shown to be:

    \[ M^{-1}={1\over (a_1b_2-a_2b_1)}\left( \begin{array}{cc} b_2&-a_2\\ -b_1&a_1 \end{array} \right) ={1\over \det(M)}\left( \begin{array}{cc} b_2&-a_2\\ -b_1&a_1 \end{array} \right) \]

Try it out, input the values of the matrix M and press evaluate to calculate its inverse.

Matrix Inverse in \mathbb{R}^3


Consider the matrix:

    \[ M=\left( \begin{array}{ccc} a_1&a_2&a_3\\ b_1&b_2&b_3\\ c_1&c_2&c_3 \end{array} \right) \]

If a=\{a_1,a_2,a_3\}, b=\{b_1,b_2,b_3\} and c=\{c_1,c_2,c_3\}, then, the inverse of M can be shown to be:

    \[ M^{-1}={1\over (a\cdot (b \times c))}\left( \begin{array}{ccc} \vdots&\vdots&\vdots\\ b\times c&c\times a & a \times b\\ \vdots&\vdots&\vdots \end{array} \right) ={1\over \det(M)}\left( \begin{array}{ccc} \vdots&\vdots&\vdots\\ b\times c&c\times a & a \times b\\ \vdots&\vdots&\vdots \end{array} \right) \]

Try it out, input the values of the matrix M and press evaluate to calculate its inverse.

Invariants

Consider \mathbb{R}^n with the two orthonormal basis sets B=\{e_i\}_{i=1}^n and B'=\{e'_i\}_{i=1}^n with a coordinate transformation matrix Q such that Q_{ij}=e'_i\cdot e_j.
Clearly, the components of vectors and the matrices representing linear operators change according to the chosen coordinate system (basis set). Invariants are functions of these components that do not change whether B or B' is chosen as the basis set.
The invariants usually rely on the fact that QQ^T=I.

Vector Invariants

Vector Norm

A vector u\in\mathbb{R}^n has the representation u with components u_i when B is the basis set. Alternatively, it has the representation u' with components u'_i when B' is the basis set.
The norm of the vector u is an invariant since it is equal whether we use B or B'.
The norm of u when B is the basis set:

    \[ \|u\|^2=u\cdot u \]

The norm of u' is also equal to the norm of u:

    \[ \|u'\|^2=u'\cdot u'=Qu\cdot Qu=u\cdot Q^TQu=u\cdot u = \|u\|^2\Rightarrow\|u'\|=\|u\| \]

Vector Dot Product

Similarly, the dot product between two vectors u,v\in\mathbb{R}^n is invariant:

    \[ u\cdot v=u\cdot Q^TQv=Qu\cdot Qv=u'\cdot v' \]

Matrix Invariants in \mathbb{R}^3

We will restrict our discussion of invariants when the underlying space is \mathbb{R}^3. A linear operator M:\mathbb{R}^3\rightarrow\mathbb{R}^3 has the matrix representation M with components M_{ij} when B is the basis set. Alternatively, it has the representation M'=QMQ^T with components M'_{ij} when B' is the basis set. The following are some invariants of the matrix M:

First Invariant, Trace

The trace of M or I_1(M) is defined as:

    \[ I_1(M)=\text{Tr}(M)=\sum_{i=1}^3M_{ii} \]

\text{Tr}(M) is invariant for if we consider the components in B':

    \[ I_1(M')=\sum_{i=1}^3M'_{ii}=\sum_{i,j,k=1}^3Q_{ij}M_{jk}Q_{ik}=\sum_{j,k=1}^3\delta_{jk}M_{jk}=\sum_{j=1}^3M_{jj}=I_1(M) \]

It is straight forward from the definition to show that \forall M,N\in\mathbb{M}^3,\forall\alpha\in\mathbb{R}:

    \[ I_1(\alpha M)=\alpha I_1(M)\hspace{10mm}I_1(M+N)=I_1(M)+I_1(N) \]

The above definition for the first invariant depends on the components in a given coordinate system. Another definition according to P. Chadwick that is independent of a coordinate system is given as follows:

    \[ \begin{split} I_1(M)&=Me_1\cdot e_1+Me_2\cdot e_2+Me_3\cdot e_3\\ &=Me_1\cdot (e_2\times e_3)+e_1\cdot (Me_2\times e_3)+e_1\cdot (e_2\times Me_3)\\ &=\frac{Ma\cdot (b\times c)+a\cdot (Mb\times c)+a\cdot (b\times Mc)}{a\cdot(b\times c)} \end{split} \]

where, a, b and c \in\mathbb{R}^3 are three arbitrary linearly independent vectors. Use the components of a, b and c to verify that the two definitions are equivalent.

Second Invariant

The second invariant I_2(M) is defined as:

    \[ I_2(M)={1\over 2}(\left(I_1(M)\right)^2-I_1(MM)) \]

Clearly, since I_1(M) is invariant, so is I_2(M):

    \[\begin{split} I_2(M')&={1\over 2}(\left(I_1(M')\right)^2-I_1(M'M'))={1\over 2}(\left(I_1(QMQ^T)\right)^2-I_1(QMMQ^T)\\ &={1\over 2}(\left(I_1(M)\right)^2-I_1(MM)\\ &=I_2(M) \end{split} \]

Another definition for the second invariant according to P. Chadwick that is independent of a coordinate system is given as follows:

    \[ \begin{split} I_2(M)&=Me_1\cdot (Me_2\times e_3)+Me_1\cdot (e_2\times Me_3)+e_1\cdot (Me_2\times Me_3)\\ &=\frac{Ma\cdot (Mb\times c)+Ma\cdot (b\times Mc)+a\cdot (Mb\times Mc)}{a\cdot(b\times c)} \end{split} \]

where, a, b and c \in\mathbb{R}^3 are three arbitrary linearly independent vectors. Use the components of a, b and c to verify that the two definitions are equivalent.

Third Invariant, the Determinant

The third invariant I_3(M) is defined as the determinant of the matrix M;

    \[ I_3(M)=\det(M) \]

Clearly, I_3(M) is invariant:

    \[ I_3(M')=\det(QMQ^T)=\det(Q)\det(Q^T)\det(M)=\det(M)=I_3(M) \]

Another definition for the third invariant according to P. Chadwick that is independent of a coordinate system is given as follows:

    \[ \begin{split} I_3(M)&=Me_1\cdot (Me_2\times Me_3)\\ &=\frac{Ma\cdot (Mb\times Mc)}{a\cdot(b\times c)} \end{split} \]

where, a, b and c \in\mathbb{R}^3 are three arbitrary linearly independent vectors. Use the components of a, b and c to verify that the two definitions are equivalent.
The trace (first invariant) and determinant (third invariant) of a matrix M\in\mathbb{M}^3 are related as follows:

    \[ \det(M)=\frac{1}{6}\left(\left(I_1(M)\right)^3-3I_1\left(M^2\right)I_1(M)+2I_1\left(M^3\right)\right) \]

Eigenvalues Are Invariants

The eigenvalues of the matrices M and M'=QMQ^T are the same (why?).
It is worth mentioning that the three invariants mentioned above appear naturally in the characteristic equation of M:

    \[ \det(M-\lambda I)=\lambda^3-I_1(M)\lambda^2+I_2(M)\lambda-I_3(M)=0 \]

Input the components of a matrix M in the following tool and three angles for coordinate transformation. The tool then calculates the three matrix invariants along with the eigenvalues and eigenvectors in both coordinate systems. As expected, the invariants and the eigenvalues are the same. However, the components of the eigenvectors are different. The vectors themselves are the same, but the components are different according to the relationship ev'=Q (ev).

Cayley-Hamilton Theorem

The Cayley-Hamilton Theorem is an important theorem in linear algebra that asserts that a matrix satisfies its characteristic equation. In other words, let A\in\mathbb{M}^n. The eigenvalues of A are those that satisfy:

    \[ \det\left(\lambda I-A\right)=\lambda^n+c_{n-1}\lambda^{n-1}+c_{n-2}\lambda^{n-2}+\cdots+c_1\lambda + c_0=0 \]

where c_i are polynomial expressions of the entries of the matrix A. In particular, c_0=(-1)^n\det{(A)}. Then, the Cayley-Hamilton Theorem asserts that:

    \[ A^n+c_{n-1}A^{n-1}+c_{n-2}A^{n-2}+\cdots+c_1A + c_0 I=0 \]

The first equation is a scalar equation which is a polynomial expression of the variable \lambda. However, the second equation is a matrix equation in which the sum of the given matrices gives the 0 matrix. Without attempting a formal proof for the theorem, in the following we will show how the theorem applies to \mathbb{M}^2 and \mathbb{M}^3.

Two Dimensional Matrices

Consider the matrix:

    \[ M= \left( \begin{array}{cc} M_{11}&M_{12}\\ M_{21}&M_{22} \end{array} \right) \]

Therefore, the characteristic equation of M is given by:

    \[ \det{\left(\lambda I - M\right)}=\det{\left(\begin{array}{cc}\lambda - M_{11}&-M_{12}\\-M_{21}&\lambda- M_{22}\end{array}\right)}=0 \]

I.e.,

    \[ \begin{split} \det{\left(\lambda I - M\right)} &= \lambda^2 - \left(M_{11}+M_{22}\right)\lambda + \left(M_{11}M_{22}-M_{12}M_{21}\right)\\ &=\lambda^2-\text{Tr}(M)\lambda+\det{M}\\ &=0 \end{split} \]

The matrix M satisfies the characteristic equation as follows:

    \[ M^2-\text{Tr}(M)M+(\det{M})I=\left( \begin{array}{cc} 0&0\\ 0&0 \end{array} \right) \]

Where:

    \[ M^2=\left( \begin{array}{cc} M_{11}^2+M_{12}M_{21}&M_{11}M_{12}+M_{22}M_{12}\\ M_{11}M_{21}+M_{21}M_{22}&M_{12}M_{21}+M_{22}^2 \end{array} \right) \]

    \[ \text{Tr}(M)M=\left( \begin{array}{cc} M_{11}^2+M_{22}M_{11}&M_{11}M_{12}+M_{22}M_{12}\\ M_{11}M_{21}+M_{22}M_{21}&M_{11}M_{22}+M_{22}^2 \end{array} \right) \]

and

    \[ (\det{M})I= \left( \begin{array}{cc} M_{11}M_{22}-M_{12}M_{21}&0\\ 0&M_{11}M_{22}-M_{12}M_{21} \end{array} \right) \]

The following Mathematica code illustrates the above expressions.

View Mathematica Code

M = {{M11, M12}, {M21, M22}}
A = M.M – Tr[M] M + Det[M]*IdentityMatrix[2] FullSimplify[A]

Three Dimensional Matrices

Consider the matrix:

    \[ M= \left( \begin{array}{ccc} M_{11}&M_{12}& M_{13}\\ M_{21}&M_{22}& M_{23}\\ M_{31}&M_{32}& M_{33} \end{array} \right) \]

Therefore, the characteristic equation of M is given by:

    \[ \det{\left(\lambda I - M\right)}=\det{\left( \begin{array}{ccc} \lambda-M_{11}&-M_{12}&-M_{13}\\ -M_{21}&\lambda-M_{22}&-M_{23}\\ -M_{31}&-M_{32}&\lambda-M_{33} \end{array} \right) }=0 \]

I.e.,

    \[ \det{\left(\lambda I - M\right)} = \lambda^3 - I_1(M)\lambda^2+ I_2(M)\lambda - I_3(M)=0 \]

The matrix M satisfies the characteristic equation as follows:

    \[ M^3-(I_1(M))M^2+(I_2(M))M-(I_3(M))I=\left( \begin{array}{ccc} 0&0&0\\ 0&0&0\\ 0&0&0 \end{array} \right) \]

The above polynomial expressions in the components of the matrix M equate to zero as illustrated using the following Mathematica code:

View Mathematica Code

M = {{M11, M12,M13}, {M21, M22,M23},{M31, M32,M33}}
I2=1/2*(Tr[M]^2-Tr[M.M]);
A = M.M.M – Tr[M] M.M + I2*M-Det[M]*IdentityMatrix[3] FullSimplify[A]

One can show using induction that for M\in\mathbb{M}^3, the matrix M^n for n\geq 3 can be written as a linear combination of M^2, M, and I such that:

    \[ M^n=f_1M^2+f_2M+f_3I \]

where f_1, f_2, and f_3 are functions of the invariants I_1(M), I_2(M), and I_3(M).
Similarly, if M is invertible, then, M^{-n} for n\geq 1 can be written as:

    \[ M^{-n}=g_1M^2+g_2M+g_3I \]

where g_1, g_2, and g_3 are functions of the invariants I_1(M), I_2(M), and I_3(M).

To calculate the eigenvalues and eigenvectors of a real-values 3-by-3 matrix, the cubic characteristic equation of the matrix should be solved for its roots. The roots of characteristic equation

    \[\lambda^3 - I_1(M)\lambda^2+ I_2(M)\lambda - I_3(M)=0\]

can be determined through factoring the terms of the polynomial, or guessing the roots. However, factoring the polynomial or/and guessing the roots may not be easy and straight forward for all cases. The following general method can be recruited to find the real roots of the characteristic (or any) cubic polynomial.

For the sake of simplicity of the formulations, we write the characteristic equation as,

    \[\lambda^3+a \lambda^{2}+b \lambda+c = 0\]

where a=-I_1(M), b=I_2(M) and c=-I_3(M) are real values.

This cubic equation can have both real and complex roots. We consider only the real roots leading to real eigenvalues and eigenvectors of M.

Finding the roots is commenced by calculating the discriminant of the polynomial as,

    \[\begin{split}D&=R^2-Q^3\\ R&=\frac{2a^3-9ab+27c}{54},\ Q=\frac{a^2-3b}{9}\end{split}\]

Once the discriminant D is calculated, the following statements hold,

1- If D<0, the polynomial has three distinct real roots. The roots can be calculated by direct factoring the polynomial (if easy enough) or determined as follows.

    \[\lambda_1 = -(2\sqrt{Q}\cos \frac{\theta}{3})-\frac{a}{3}\]

    \[\lambda_2 = -(2\sqrt{Q}\cos \frac{\theta+2\pi}{3})-\frac{a}{3}\]

    \[\lambda_3 = -(2\sqrt{Q}\cos \frac{\theta-2\pi}{3})-\frac{a}{3}\]

where \theta=\arccos (\frac{R}{\sqrt{Q^3}}).

2- If D>0, the polynomial has one real root and two complex roots. The real root can be computed by factoring the polynomial or,

    \[\lambda_1= S + T -\frac{a}{3}\]

where,

    \[S=\sqrt[3]{-R+\sqrt{D}}\text{ and }T=\sqrt[3]{-R-\sqrt{D}}\]

3- If D=0 and a^2=3b then the polynomial has three repeated roots, i.e. a triple root, as

    \[\lambda_1=\lambda_2=\lambda_3=-\frac{a}{3}\]

The polynomial with three repeated roots can be factored as (x+\frac{b}{3})^3.

4- If D=0 and a^2\ne3b then the polynomial has two repeated roots, i.e. a double root, as,

    \[\lambda_2=\lambda_3=\frac{9c-ab}{2a^2-3b}\]

and a simple (not repeated) root,

    \[\lambda_1=\frac{4ac-9c-a^3}{a^2-3b}\]

In this case, the polynomial can be factored as (x-\lambda_1)(x-\lambda_2)^2.

Once the eigenvalues (the roots) are calculated, the eigenvectors can be calculated by solving the indeterminate and homogeneous linear system (M - \lambda I)v=0 for v\in \mathbb{R}^3. This linear system can have the following three types of general sets of solutions as the eigenvectors of M.

1- All eigenvectors associated with an eigenvalue can be written as the scalar product of any eigenvector of M, i.e. the eigenvectors belong to a one-dimensional subspace of \mathbb{R}^3. In this case, if \lambda_1 is an eigenvalue of M and v_1 is its associated eigenvector, then \{tv_1: t\in \mathbb{R}\} describes all the eigenvectors associated with \lambda_1\. For example,

    \[M=\begin{bmatrix} 1 && 1 && 1\\ 1 && -1 && 1\\ 1 && 1 && -1 \end{bmatrix}\]

has three eigenvalues \lambda_1=-2, \lambda_2=-1, \lambda_3=2 and eigenvectors as the following general solutions (associated with the eigenvalues),

    \[v_1 = \begin{bmatrix} 0 \\ -t \\ t \end{bmatrix}, v_2 = \begin{bmatrix} -t \\ t \\ t \end{bmatrix}, v_3 = \begin{bmatrix} 2t \\ t \\ t \end{bmatrix}\]

where t\mathbb{R}. As we can see, each eigenvector belongs to a one-dimensional subspace of \mathbb{R}^3. Instances of the eigenvectors for t=1 are,

    \[v_1 = \begin{bmatrix} 0 \\ -1 \\ 1 \end{bmatrix}, v_2 = \begin{bmatrix} -1 \\ 1 \\ 1 \end{bmatrix}, v_3 = \begin{bmatrix} 2 \\ 1 \\ 1 \end{bmatrix}\]

2- All eigenvector associated with an eigenvalue belong to a two-dimensional subspace of \mathbb{R}^3. It means if \lambda_1 is an eigenvalue of M, there are two linearly independent eigenvectors w_1 and w_2 such that v\in \{t_1w_1 + t_2w_2: t_1,t_2\in \mathbb{R}\}, i.e. v is a linear combination of w_1 and w_2. Note that w1 and w2 are also associated with \lambda_1. For example,

    \[M=\begin{bmatrix} 0 && -1 && 0\\ 0 && 0 && 0\\ 0 && 0 && 0 \end{bmatrix}\]

has an eigenvalue \lambda = 0 and its associated eigenvectors are all vectors expressed as,

    \[v=\begin{bmatrix} t_1 \\ 0 \\ t_2 \end{bmatrix} = t_1\begin{bmatrix} 1 \\ 0 \\ 0 \end{bmatrix} + t_2\begin{bmatrix}  0\\0 \\ 1 \end{bmatrix} \]

The above is the general solution of (M - \lambda I)v=0. An instance of eigenvector of M can be given by setting values for t_1 and t_2. For example,

    \[v=\begin{bmatrix} 1 \\ 0 \\ 3 \end{bmatrix}\]

for t_1=1 and t_2=3.

3- For an eigenvalue \lambda_1, all vectors in \mathbb{R}^3 are eigenvectors of M. In other words, \{(t_1,t_2,t_3):t_1,t_2,t_3\in \mathbb {R}\} is the set of general solution of (M - \lambda I)v=0 and eigenvectors of M. For example, the identity matrix

    \[M=\begin{bmatrix} 1 && 0 && 0\\ 0 && 1 && 0\\ 0 && 0 && 1 \end{bmatrix}\]

has a single eigenvalue \lambda = 1 and all vectors in \mathbb {R}^3 are its eigenvectors.

The following interactive tool calculates real eigenvalues and eigenvectors of a three dimensional matrix. It shows the types of the roots and general solutions regarding the eigenvectors. Note: Simple, double, and triple roots are referred to as non-repeated, twice repeated, and three-time repeated roots respectively. The eigenvalues and the eigenvectors are listed in the same order. The precision of outputs is 10^{-4}.

Video:

Quiz9-Invariants

Solution Guide

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *