## Linear Vector Spaces: Examples and Problems

### Examples Problems

#### Example 1

Which of the following sets are orthonormal basis sets in the Euclidean vector space ?

- where , , and .
- where , , and .

##### Solution

For the set we have:

Therefore, , , and are unit vectors. In addition, we have:

Therefore, the three vectors , , and are orthogonal to each other. Therefore, is an orthonormal basis set.

For the set we have:

Therefore, and are not orthogonal to each other. Therefore, is not an orthonormal basis set. In fact, we have which means that is linearly dependent, therefore, it is not even a basis set for . Notice that the symbol “.” is used in Mathematica for the dot product as shown below.

View Mathematica Code:

e1 = {1, 0, 0}; e2 = {0, 1/Sqrt[2], 1/Sqrt[2]}; e3 = {0, 1/Sqrt[2], -1/Sqrt[2]}; e1.e1 e1.e2 e1.e3 e2.e2 e2.e3 e3.e3 ep1 = {1, 0, 0}; ep2 = {0, 1/Sqrt[2], 1/Sqrt[2]}; ep3 = {0, -1/Sqrt[2], -1/Sqrt[2]}; ep1.ep1 ep1.ep2 ep1.ep3 ep2.ep2 ep2.ep3 ep3.ep3

#### Example 2

Find the angle between the two vectors , and . Also use the cross product operation to find the vector .

##### Solution

To find the geometric angle between the two vectors and , we will use the dot product operation:

We have , and . Therefore, and are orthogonal and .

The cross product between and gives the vector as follows:

View Mathematica Code:

x = {1, 1, 1}; y = {-1, 2, -1}; z = Cross[x, y] Norm[x] Norm[y] thetaxy = ArcCos[x.y/Norm[x]/Norm[y]] (*You can also find the angle between the two vectors using the command VectorAngle*) VectorAngle[x,y]

#### Problems

- Show that the following sets are subspaces of . What is the graphical representation of each subspace? Find two different basis sets for each subspace.
- .
- .

- Show that the following sets are subspaces of . What is the graphical representation of each subspace? Find two different basis sets for each subspace.
- .
- .

- Find three vectors that are orthogonal to .
- Find three vectors that are orthogonal to .
- Choose a value for such that , and are linearly independent.
- Choose two different sets of values for and such that , and are linearly dependent.
- Verify that , and are linearly independent and then find the unique expansion of in the basis set .
- Verify that , and are linearly independent and then find the unique expansion of in the basis set .
- Find two different orthonormal basis sets and two different non-orthonormal basis sets for .
- Find two different orthonormal basis sets and two different non-orthonormal basis sets for .
- Find two different orthonormal basis sets and two different non-orthonormal basis sets for . The basis sets should include vector . Hint: An orthonormal basis set is a basis set whose vectors satisfy two conditions. The first condition is that the vectors in the basis set are orthogonal to each other and the second condition is that each vector has a unit norm.
- Show that the following vectors are linearly dependent , , and .
- Show that the following vectors are linearly dependent , , and .
- Verify that the following vectors are linearly independent , , and . Then, find the unique expansion of in the basis set .
- Verify that the following vectors are linearly independent , , and . Then, find the unique expansion of in the basis set .
- Use the cross product to find a vector orthogonal to both and . Also, find the area of the parallelogram formed by the two vectors and .
- Use the cross product to find a vector orthogonal to both and . Also, find the area of the parallelogram formed by the two vectors and .
- For the shown cuboid, , , , and .
- Use the cross product operation to find two unit vectors orthogonal to the plane . What is the relationship between those two vectors?
- Use the cross product to find the area of the parallelogram .
- Find the angle between the vectors representing and .

Notice that the line geometric object starting at point and ending at point can be represented by a vector .

- Determine if the following vectors and are linearly independent where and while is a set of linearly independent vectors in .
- Which of the following functions defined below satisfy the properties of a norm function (explain your answer). :
- .
- .
- .
- .

- Let . Assume that . Show that is the zero vector. (Hint: Show that the components of in an orthonormal basis set are all equal to zero)